Image Acquisition | Task 2

image acquisition

Web definitions
A digital image is produced by one or several image sensors, which, besides various types of light-sensitive cameras, include range…

TIMELINE:

  • 1822 – Nicéphore Niépce takes the first fixed, permanent photograph, of an engraving of Pope Pius VII, using a non-lens contact-printing “heliographic process”, but it was destroyed later; the earliest surviving example is from 1825.
  • 1826 – Nicéphore Niépce takes the first fixed, permanent photograph from nature, a landscape that required an eight hour exposure.
  • 1835 – William Fox Talbot creates his own photography process.
  • 1839 – Louis Daguerre patents the daguerreotype.
  • 1839 – William Fox Talbot invented the positive / negative process widely used in modern photography. He refers to this asphotogenic drawing.
  • 1839 – John Herschel demonstrates hyposulfite of soda (also known as hypo, or sodium thiosulfate) as a fixer, and makes the first glass negative.
  • 1851 – Introduction of the collodion process by Frederick Scott Archer.
  • 1854 – André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri credited with introduction of the carte de visite (French “visiting card”). Disdéri introduced a camera with multiple lenses, which could reproduce eight individually exposed images on a single negative. After printing on albumen paper, the images were cut apart and glued to calling card-sized mounts
  • 1861 – The first color photograph, an additive projected image of a tartan ribbon, is shown by James Clerk Maxwell.
    • 1868 – Louis Ducos du Hauron patents a method of subtractive color photography.1871 – The gelatin emulsion is invented by Richard Maddox.
    • 1876 – F. Hurter & V. C. Driffield begin systematic evaluation of sensitivity characteristics of photographic emulsions – science of sensitometry.
    • 1878 – Eadweard Muybridge made a high-speed photographic demonstration of a moving horse, airborne during a trot, using a trip-wire system.
    • 1887 – Celluloid film base introduced.
      • 1887 – Gabriel Lippmann invents a “method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference”
      • 1888 – Kodak n°1 box camera is mass marketed; first easy-to-use camera.
      • 1888 – Louis Le Prince makes Roundhay Garden Scene, considered the first film ever made.
      • 1891 – William Kennedy Laurie Dickson develops the “kinetoscopic camera” (motion pictures) while working for Thomas Edison.
        • 1898 – Kodak introduced their Folding Pocket Kodak.
        • 1900 – Kodak introduced their first Brownie.
        • 1901 – Kodak introduced the 120 film.
          • 1908 – Kinemacolor, a two-color process that is the first commercial “natural color” system for movies, is introduced.
          • 1909 – Kodak introduces a 35 mm “safety” motion picture film on an acetate base as an alternative to the highly flammable nitrate base. The motion picture industry discontinues its use after 1911 due to technical imperfections.
          • 1912 – Vest Pocket Kodak using 127 film.
          • 1922 – Kodak makes 35 mm panchromatic motion picture film available as a regular stock
            • 1922 – Kodak introduces 16 mm reversal film, on cellulose acetate (safety) base.
            • 1923 – Doc Harold Edgerton invents the xenon flash lamp and strobe photography.
            • 1925 – The Leica introduced the 35mm format to still photography.
            • 1934 – The 135 film cartridge was introduced, making 35mm easy to use.
            • 1936 – Introduction by IHAGEE of the Ihagee Kine Exakta 1, the first 35mm. Single Lens reflex camera.
            • 1939 – Agfacolor negative-positive color material, the first modern “print” film.
            • 1942 – Kodacolor, Kodak’s first “print” film.
            • 1949 – The Contax S camera was introduced, the first 35mm SLR camera with pentaprism for eye-level viewing.
            • 1957 – First Asahi Pentax SLR introduced.
            • 1957 – First digital image produced on a computer by Russell Kirsch at U.S. National Bureau of Standards (now known as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST).
            • 1964 – First Pentax Spotmatic SLR introduced
            • 1975 – Bryce Bayer of Kodak develops the Bayer filter mosaic pattern for CCD color image sensors.
            • 1986 – Kodak scientists invent the world’s first megapixel sensor.
            • 2008 – Polaroid announces it is discontinuing the production of all instant film products, citing the rise of digital imaging technology

1826- French inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.

His photographs were produced on a polished pewter plate covered with a petroleum derivative called bitumen of Judea, which he then dissolved in white petroleum. Bitumen hardens with exposure to light. The unhardened material may then be washed away and the metal plate polished, rendering a positive image with light regions of hardened bitumen and dark regions of bare pewter. Niépce then began experimenting with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1727 that silver nitrate (AgNO3) darkens when exposed to light

1839- Louis Daguerre.

Daguerre made two pivotal contributions to the process. He discovered that exposing the silver first to iodine vapour before exposure to light, and then to mercury fumes after the photograph was taken, could form a latent image. Bathing the plate in a salt bath then fixes the image. On January 7, 1839 Daguerre announced that he had invented a process using silver on a copper plate called the daguerreotype, and displayed the first plate.The French government bought the patent and almost immediately (on August 19 of that year) made it public domain.

Camera Obscura; cam·er·a ob·scu·ra

noun /əbˈskyo͝orə/
camerae obscurae, plural

  1. A darkened box with a convex lens or aperture for projecting the image of an external object onto a screen inside. It is important historically in the development of photography.
  2. A small round building with a rotating angled mirror at the apex of the roof, projecting an image of the landscape on to a horizontal surface inside.

The camera obscura is an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen. It is used in drawing and for entertainment, and was one of the inventions that led to photography and the camera

Eadweard Muybridge

In 1872, the former governor of California Leland Stanford, a businessman and race-horse owner, hired Muybridge for some photographic studies. He had taken a position on a popularly debated question of the day — whether all four feet of a horse were off the ground at the same time while trotting. The same question had arisen about the actions of horses during a gallop. The human eye could not break down the action at the quick gaits of the trot and gallop. Up until this time, most artists painted horses at a trot with one foot always on the ground; and at a full gallop with the front legs extended forward and the hind legs extended to the rear, and all feet off the ground.[27] Stanford sided with the assertion of “unsupported transit” in the trot and gallop, and decided to have it proven scientifically. Stanford sought out Muybridge and hired him to settle the question.[28]

Galloping horse, animated in 2006, using photos by Eadweard Muybridge.

In 1872, Muybridge settled Stanford’s question with a single photographic negative showing his Standardbred trotting horse Occident airborne at the trot. This negative was lost, but the image survives through woodcuts made at the time (the technology for printed reproductions of photographs was still being developed). He later did additional studies, as well as improving his camera for quicker shutter speed and faster film emulsions. By 1878, spurred on by Stanford to expand the experiments, Muybridge had successfully photographed a horse at a trot; lantern slides have survived of this later work. Scientific American was among the publications at the time that carried reports of Muybridge’s groundbreaking images.

Stanford also wanted a study of the horse at a gallop. Muybridge planned to take a series of photos on 15 June 1878 at Stanford’s Palo Alto Stock Farm. He placed numerous large glass-plate cameras in a line along the edge of the track; the shutter of each was triggered by a thread as the horse passed. The path was lined with cloth sheets to reflect as much light as possible. (In later studies he used a clockwork device to set off the shutters and capture the images.) He copied the images in the form of silhouettes onto a disc to be viewed in a machine he had invented, which he called a zoopraxiscope. This device was later regarded as an early movie projector, and the process as an intermediate stage toward motion pictures or cinematography.

The study is called Sallie Gardner at a Gallop or The Horse in Motion; it shows images of the horse with all feet off the ground. This did not take place when the horse’s legs were extended to the front and back, as imagined by contemporary illustrators, but when its legs were collected beneath its body as it switched from “pulling” with the front legs to “pushing” with the back legs.

REFLECTION: 

I began my research by looking at a lengthy timeline of dates of the evolution of Photography. Spanning over hundreds of years, I had plenty of dates to use at my disposal, this proved quite tricky when choosing which dates were more important and crucial to the production of modern digital photography. From this I decided to define the topic title as I was unaware of its content, from this I found it relates to the production of a photograph or photography. I chose to research into the work of Eadweard Muybridge further as his study Sallie Gardner at a Gallop displaying a horse running in motion was a great change and revolution within using photography as capturing factual evidence. During this research, I have learnt a lot about the span of photography and how long it has actually been around for- also the importance of photography within history and how it has been used as a method of capturing the world around us, nowadays more than ever with the use of cameras inputted into almost everything and mass production.

TIMELINE

I have sifted and sorted through the many different dates to choose an amount and ones I feel a greater necessity to historically and evolutionary. Using gathered secondary sourced research information, I am able to delegate and use visual factors to display this in my own way when it comes to producing the Illustrator document.

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